Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Tư 26, 2012

Tính cách và nghề nghiệp phù hợp với MBTI

MBTI là phương pháp dùng để phân loại tính cách con người với 4 tiêu chí:

XU HƯỚNG TỰ NHIÊN: Extraversion (Hướng ngoại) / Introversion (Hướng nội)

Đây là 2 xu hướng đối lập thể hiện xu hướng ứng xử với thế giới bên ngoài.

  • Hướng ngoại – hướng về thế giới bên ngoài gồm các hoạt động, con người, đồ vật.
  • Hướng nội – hướng vào nội tâm, bao gồm ý nghĩ, tư tưởng, trí tưởng tượng

Đây là 2 mặt đối lập nhưng bổ sung lẫn nhau. Tuy nhiên, một mặt sẽ
chiếm ưu thế trong việc phát triển tính cách và ảnh hưởng đển cách ứng
xử.

TÌM HIỂU VÀ NHẬN THỨC THẾ GIỚI: Sensing (Giác quan) / iNtuition (Trực giác)

Đây là 2 xu hướng đối lập nhau về cách chúng ta tiếp nhận thông tin từ thế giới bên ngoài.

  • Trung tâm “Giác quan” trong não bộ chú ý đến các
    chi tiết liên quan đến hình ảnh, âm thanh, mùi vị… của hiện tại được đưa
    đến từ 5 giác quan của cơ thể. Nó phân loại, sắp xếp và ghi nhận những
    chi tiết của các sự kiện thực tế đang diễn ra. Nó cũng cung cấp các
    thông tin chi tiết của các sự kiện đã xảy ra trong quá khứ.
  • Trung tâm “Trực giác” của não bộ chịu trách nhiệm tìm hiểu, diễn dịch, và hình thành các mô hình từ thông tin thu thập được; sắp xếp các mô hình và liên hệ chúng với nhau. Nó giúp cho não bộ suy đoán các khả năng và tiên đoán tương lai.

QUYẾT ĐỊNH VÀ CHỌN LỰA: Thinking (Lý trí) / Feeling (Tình cảm)

Đây là 2 xu hướng đối lập về cách chúng ta đưa ra quyết định và lựa chọn của mình.

  • Phần lý trí trong não bộ con người phân tích thông
    tin một cách khách quan, làm việc dựa trên đúng/sai, suy luận và đưa ra
    kết luận một cách có hệ thống. Nó là bản chất logic của con người.
  • Phần cảm giác của não bộ đưa ra quyết định dựa trên xem xét tổng
    thể; yêu/ghét; tác động qua lại lẫn nhau; và các giá trị nhân đạo hay
    thẩm mỹ. Đó là bản chất chủ quan của con người.

CÁCH THỨC HÀNH ĐỘNG: Judging (Nguyên tắc) / Perceiving (Linh hoạt)

Đây là cách thức mà mỗi người lựa chọn để tác động tới thế giới bên ngoài.

  • Nguyên tắc: tiếp cận thế giới một cách có kế hoạch, có tổ chức, có chuẩn bị, quyết định và đạt đến một kết cục rõ ràng.
  • Linh hoạt: tiếp cận thế giới một cách tự nhiên, tìm
    cách thích nghi với hoàn cảnh, thích một kết cục bỏ ngỏ, chấp nhận
    những cơ hội mới, và chấp nhận thay đổi kế hoạch.
Xem thêm: http://www.mbti.vn/trac-nghiem-tinh-cach-mbti/#ixzz1vwVuF557

ĐẶC ĐIỂM CHUNG

I – INTROVERSION – (HƯỚNG NỘI)

  • Suy nghĩ và cân nhắc kỹ lưỡng trước khi hành động
  • Cần có một khoảng thời gian riêng tư đáng kể để nạp năng lượng
  • Hứng thú với đời sống nội tâm, đôi khi tự cô lập với thế giới bên ngoài
  • Thích nói chuyện riêng tư 2 người.
  • Hiếm khi chủ động xin ý kiến của người khác

E – EXTRAVERSION– (HƯỚNG NGOẠI)

  • Hành động trước hết, suy nghĩ và cân nhắc sau
  • Cảm thấy khổ sở nếu bị cách ly với thế giới bên ngoài
  • Hứng thú với con người và sự việc xung quanh
  • Quảng giao, thích tiếp xúc với nhiều người
  • Dễ bắt chuyện

S – SENSING (CẢM GIÁC)

  • Sống với hiện tại
  • Thích các giải pháp đơn giản và thực tế
  • Có trí nhớ tốt về các chi tiết của những sự kiện trong quá khứ
  • Giỏi áp dụng kinh nghiệm
  • Thoải mái với những thông tin rõ ràng và chắc chắn

N – INTUITION (TRỰC GIÁC)

  • Hay nghĩ đến tương lai
  • Sử dụng trí tưởng tượng, hay sáng tạo ra những khả năng mới
  • Thường chỉ nhớ đến ý chính và các mối liên hệ
  • Giỏi vận dụng lý thuyết
  • Thoải mái với sự nhập nhằng, hay những thông tin không rõ ràng

T-THINKING (LÝ TRÍ)

  • Luôn tìm kiếm sự kiện và tính logic để đưa ra kết luận
  • Có xu hướng để tâm đến các nhiệm vụ, công việc cần phải hoàn thành
  • Dễ dàng đưa ra những phân tích thấu đáo và khách quan
  • Chấp nhận xung đột là một phần tự nhiên trong mối quan hệ giữa người với người.

F-FEELING (TÌNH CẢM)

Xem xét cảm xúc cá nhân và ảnh hưởng của một quyết định lên người khác trước khi đưa ra quyết định đó.

  • Nhạy cảm với những nhu cầu và phản ứng của người khác.
  • Tìm kiếm sự nhất trí và ý kiến của số đông.
  • Khó xử khi có xung đột; hoặc có phản ứng tiêu cực khi xảy ra bất hòa.

J-JUDGING (NGUYÊN TẮC)

  • Có kế hoạch chu đáo trước khi hành động
  • Tập trung vào các hoạt động có tính nhiệm vụ, hoàn tất các công đoạn quan trọng trước khi tiếp tục
  • Làm việc tốt nhất và không bị stress khi hoàn thành công việc trước thời hạn
  • Tự đặt ra mục tiêu, thời hạn, và các chuẩn mực để quản lý cuộc sống

P-PERCEIVING (LINH HOẠT)

  • Có thể hành động mà không cần lập kế hoạch; lập kế hoach tùy theo tình hình
  • Thích làm nhiều việc cùng lúc, thích sự đa dạng, có thể vừa làm vừa chơi
  • Chịu sức ép tốt, làm việc hiệu quả nhất khi công việc gần hết hạn
  • Tìm cách tránh né cam kết nếu nó ảnh hưởng đến sự linh động, sự tự do và da đạng của bản thân

Các yếu tố được đề cập ở trên tuy trái ngược nhau nhưng chỉ nhằm thể
hiện sự khác nhau giữa con người và không có yếu tố nào tốt hơn các yếu
tố còn lại. Từ 4 tiêu chí này, đưa ra 16 tính cách MBTI khách nhau. Tên của mỗi nhóm đều có 4 chữ cái, đại diện cho 4 tiêu chuẩn phân loại.

——————- ———-

Xem thêm các đặc điểm tính cách được tổ hợp từ 4 tiêu chí ở trên trong cùng chuyên mục!

Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Năm 25, 2014

Top 10 Hiring Mistakes, #10: Letting it Fester

Like it or not, you’re eventually going to make a bad hire. Even if you do everything right in the hiring process, you’ll find that it still doesn’t work out about a third of the time. So instead of beating yourself up about it, find a way to gracefully undo the mistake.

You’ll usually know something’s wrong in the first 90 days. The new person will be late completing projects, won’t have the skills you might’ve thought, or won’t seem to be putting in a lot of effort. But most of the time you’ll find that the person just isn’t the right fit. He doesn’t really get along with – or “get” – the team. It’s less what he does than how he does it.

The longer you keep the wrong person on, the worse the mistake becomes. Problems compound as the recruit’s performance puts more demands on the people around him, and they start getting dragged down too.

So here are a few guidelines for extracting yourself – and your new recruit – from a mistaken hire:

1) It’s not them, it’s you: The most important thing to remember when you’re preparing to let a new hire go is that you made the mistake, not them. You or your team probably should’ve caught the issue during the interview and reference checking process – or perhaps you blew the onboarding. In any case, don’t take your mistake out on the new hire. You made the call – now you have to unmake it.

2) Do it fast: It’s no fun realizing you made a hiring error and that it’s up to you to deal with it. But once you know, you have to take action. If you let the error sit untouched long enough, it can grow into a full-blown personnel disaster. Bad mojo from the hire can spread like a disease – if things get bad enough, other team members can threaten to quit or projects can get derailed.

This isn’t a regular firing situation, where you’ve tried to help a longer-term employee get back on track with feedback and coaching – or even deciding that the person can no longer keep up with a job they were once well-suited for.

This is a new hire. Because the person is not yet a functional part of your organization, you’re doing him and yourself a favor if you take care of the problem before it goes too far.

3) Be human about it: Remember that the new hire is about to lose a job he just got, and may well be upset and embarrassed. Be gracious and gentle. Remind the person that, sometimes, good people are simply not the right fit for certain jobs, even if they’re talented and hard-working. Your recruit will be better able to thrive in a job and environment that’s more suited to him.

4) Help with the transition: Because this was your mistake, you should make sure the person has a soft landing when he leaves the position. If you can’t find a job inside your organization, help find one outside, whether it’s by offering to be a reference, arranging for introductions, or brainstorming ideas. Try to give enough severance to buy the person time to find a new job. And when it comes time to make the announcement, help craft a true but kind public reason for why he’s moving on so quickly.

5) Offer parting feedback: If you simply show people the door without giving them any insight into the reasoning, they may not be better off at their next job. There are certain liability issues you need to be careful of when discussing performance, but if the person is open to it, you ought to be able to find a way to offer constructive feedback on how he can improve. Many people will want to hear how they can grow and do better, and opportunities for that kind of information are relatively rare. By the same token, you might also ask the person if they noticed any ways you or your organization can improve: it takes two to make a poor fit, and perhaps there’s something you can do better in the future.

You’ll never have a perfect batting average with hiring, but if you ignore your own mistakes and hope they go away, you’ll be doing a major disservice both to your organization and to the person you’ve hired. Put yourself in his shoes: if your new boss was certain you weren’t the right person for the job, would you want her to tell you, or to pretend everything was okay? It’s always best to face our mistakes squarely, do our best to address them, and move forward.

http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130720143810-11846967-top-10-hiring-mistake-10-letting-it-fester?trk=mp-reader-card

 

Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Năm 25, 2014

Top 10 Hiring Mistakes, #9: When It’s All About the Money

When it comes to deciding what to pay your new hires, you want to be right on the money.

Pay too little, and before long they’ll become dissatisfied and resentful. As soon as a better opportunity comes along, they’ll be gone.

Pay too much, and they’ll be happy for a while. But if a big paycheck is their primary reward, they’ll begin to feel they’ve traded away their freedom for financial security. Mortgages, car payments and school tuitions may lock them into jobs they can’t stand, or no longer do well. They’ll want to leave, but won’t know how.

Organizations made up of people who chose their jobs based on the highest salaries are miserable places to work. They’re often full of petty jealousies and politics, and hostile to new hires. I won’t name any of the Wall Street firms who hire mainly with outrageous salary and bonus packages; but it’s clear to those of us who use their services that something is wrong. The worst offenders have created monster organizations that eat people up, are hard to manage, and miss the top-quality candidates that aren’t interested in the mistreatment. When firms are full of unhappy people who are just there for the money, everyone – management, colleagues, customers – pays the price.

Instead, your hiring goal should be to create an “all-volunteer” organization, where everyone is there because they want to be. Many of today’s knowledge workers are flexible enough to migrate between jobs if they’re feeling unappreciated or underpaid. Remember, your competitors are just around the corner: There will always be a rival willing to pay “above market” to hire away your best people.

That’s why good leaders know that a good salary alone is never enough to keep people on board. You need to offer team members ways to find meaning in their jobs, to enjoy collaborating with colleagues, and to feel invested in the purpose of the organization.

A lot of well-compensated people put up with anguish at work, hoping it’ll pay off outside the office, when they’re “living life.” That’s a losing strategy in the long run. In our personal lives, most of us are looking for happiness, for understanding, for meaning and for camaraderie with people we like and respect. So why not create a workplace where all this is true, too?

It’s not all about the money. Consider other kinds of compensation, like these, that can offer meaning, recognition and respect to those you hire:

  1. Access and voice – If people don’t have access to senior management, they chafe when their voices aren’t heard. Most people don’t insist on having their way all the time; they just want to know their way has been considered.
  2. Titles – The best organizations I’ve worked with are relatively egalitarian when it comes to titles. At jetBlue, we’re all crewmembers – from the CEO to the newest flight attendant.
  3. Recognition – Formal recognition programs such as “employee of the month” or years-of-service awards are all fine; but they don’t have as much impact as the casual nod at the beginning of a meeting to those who put in a great effort. Making it clear that credit will be given for great performance is a form of reward.
  4. Learning – For many, meaning is intimately linked to growth, learning, and the discovery of their own potential. Don’t be an organization that touts growth opportunities but doesn’t back it up with time or money. Giving people a chance to cycle through different positions, to learn new skills and to experience new challenges are powerful forms of compensation.
  5. Service – The things people sacrifice for are the things they love. Give them an opportunity to help their fellow workers, to give to a community fund, to do work projects, to deliver meals, or to work shoulder-to-shoulder to give back.

People who prefer money to these other kinds of compensation may be “hired guns,” the kind who hang around right up until a better-paying gig comes along. But the people who thrive in an environment that prizes respect and opportunity are likely to stay, to be more invested in their work, and to create value for themselves and the organization – all things that money can’t buy.

http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130711080144-11846967-top-10-hiring-mistakes-9-all-about-the-money?trk=mp-reader-card

 

Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Năm 25, 2014

Top 10 Hiring Mistakes, #8: Blowing the First 90 Days

A successful hire doesn’t end with a job offer and a handshake. “Welcome aboard” is just the beginning.

Even overachievers need support, direction and encouragement in their first 90 days, and HR training sessions and employee manuals won’t cut it. It’s up to you to help your new team member feel comfortable with her role and colleagues, or you might lose her. And that’s a hiring mistake you don’t want to make.

When I hire someone, I start by making the new employee’s success an explicit personal goal. This might sound something like:

By the end of 90 days:

  • I want the team to wonder how they got along before Mary joined.
  • I want Mary to say, “I never thought I’d enjoy a job so much.”
  • I want to be excited about Mary’s contribution to the organization’s future.

The particulars of these goals can vary, of course. The point is to imagine what a “win” might be for Mary – and for you. Like any goal, you have to make it a reality by doing what it takes to get there, not just talking about it.

If you want to do “onboarding” right, I recommend the following approaches:

1) Everyone pitches in: Your team may need to be reminded to make an extra effort to be welcoming. Just as the human body can reject a transplanted organ, existing teams can be hostile to new members without the right groundwork. Getting your team involved in the hiring process is a good start; but don’t stop there. Ask the team for thoughts about how to make the new person feel welcome, perhaps something that helped them in their early days on the job. Just reminding the team about first-day anxiety will communicate a level of care that can pay dividends.

2) Cut ‘em some slack: A new hire can put herself under a tremendous amount of pressure to get results right away, the better to show the team what she’s made of. Ask her not to go all out right away. Her first few months should be spent listening, observing, getting to know her teammates, and building trust. Tell her you know she’ll do well – that’s why you hired her. But for now, “job one” is to build trust and to learn from her new colleagues.

3) Get the feedback going: Ask your newcomer for permission to provide frank, real-time feedback (which doesn’t mean you’ll be breathing down her neck – it means you’ll be there to offer help and suggestions.) Likewise, tell her that you’ll want to hear her unvarnished perspective on the way you work – so the feedback goes both ways. In order to make the process more effective, bear in mind that the best feedback happens in real time. If you can catch someone in the moment, while the teaching opportunity is still fresh, it’s better than calling her into your office for a performance summit days or weeks later. Just after a meeting, call or conversation, it should be no big deal to say, “I noticed a bit of tension when… I wonder if we might explore what you were thinking when… Or, tell me if I’m helping when I…”

4) Be clear: There should be no doubt about the new hire’s roles, her reporting relationships, and, once acclimated, what she’ll be expected to deliver. But remember that over the long haul, successful hires do far more than just “get work done”. They do their jobs in a way that empowers others, builds the organization, reduces conflict and creates harmony. Remember, people are hired for what they can do, but get fired for how they go about it. Remind your new hires that the “how” can be more important than the what – and give them the coaching they need to understand what that means.

5) Values – show, don’t tell: It’s easy to rattle off a list of virtues when you’re describing what your organization is all about. Companies love to talk about the importance of integrity, cooperation and social responsibility. But you’re fooling yourself if you think you can teach your employees virtues by reading them from the handbook. Your organization’s values come from where it spends its time, money, and energy. And perhaps more than that, how its people act, and the choices they make.

http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130630075518-11846967-top-10-hiring-mistakes-8-blowing-the-first-90-days?trk=mp-reader-card

Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Năm 25, 2014

Top 10 Hiring Mistakes, #7: Only Hiring Outside – or Inside

When it’s time to make a hire, you’ll want to get good at knowing whether the best candidate already works for you – or if you have to go somewhere else to find her.

It’s a delicate balance. You don’t want to go outside for every important hire, nor do you want to confine yourself to internal candidates. Each approach has its advantages, but either can become a liability if you rely on it too much.

Outside hires can bring skills and experience that people on the home team just don’t have. If you’re looking to open an office in China, you need someone with experience doing business there; if there’s no such person on your team, you’ll have to hire one. If you’re a brick and mortar retailer and you want to build your Internet sales channel, you may not have a person with the technical skills to make it happen.

Outside hires can bring new ideas and dazzling problem-solving approaches with them – and those infusions of creativity will often allow new perspectives to replace older ones. That’s how a culture evolves.

But in the same way, hiring outside people can become habit-forming. The excitement about new insights they’ll bring, and opportunities they’ll see that others won’t, can be seductive. Internal candidates can seem all too familiar: their shortcomings are well-known, their reputations are established; so why not take the risk and look for an outsider who could be your next superstar?

Beware of this siren song. You know your internal candidates, but you don’t know the outside ones, and it’s precisely what you don’t know that can come back to bite you. You can fill some of the gaps with thorough interviews and reference checking, but not even the best hiring practices reveal every potential problem.

Promoting from the inside leaves less to chance. Your people are known quantities; you’re aware of their character and capabilities. Moreover, advancing one of your team members lets the others know that you care about the upward mobility of your team. It’ll show that your organization values professional development, and backs it up with real opportunities. That will help you keep your stars, and boost the chances that, when it does become necessary to bring in talent from outside, your people will be onboard with it.

When going outside does make sense

In an earlier post, I wrote about the perils of hiring only people who are familiar to you. The same kind of mentality can lead to an allergy to outside candidates – they’re people you don’t know. But inside-only hiring can lead to insularity and stagnation in your organization. It can weaken your ability to stay agile and innovative. At worst, you’ll fall out of touch with your customers and the market.

You might worry that bringing in outsiders can disturb your firm’s culture and disrupt the way things are done. Maybe. But many cultures can benefit from a periodic shake-up. Sometimes that kind of jolt is just what your firm needs to leave behind old habits.

So when you’re trying to decide whether to hire an internal or external candidate, interview both. The process itself can be helpful to all involved. For internal candidates who don’t make the cut, it can be an opportunity to offer feedback and help them craft a plan to improve and advance. Likewise, if you decide to go with an insider, having talked to external candidates will give you insight into what’s happening in other parts of the industry, and to meet candidates who may be a good fit for another position later.

In the long run, you’ll want to strike a balance between keeping current employees engaged and excited, and bringing in fresh talent and perspective. As with many areas of business and life, there are two sides to every coin, and you’ll want to be comfortable picking both heads and tails.

http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130626063817-11846967-top-10-hiring-mistakes-7-hiring-only-from-outside-or-inside?trk=mp-reader-card

Đăng bởi: thanhthoale | Tháng Năm 25, 2014

Top 10 Hiring Mistakes, #6: Freezing Out Your Team

We often picture the hiring process as a one-on-one kind of activity, with a manager facing the candidate across a table, and later making the final decision about who to bring on. But like nearly everything in business, you’ll get far better results if you make hiring a team effort.

Your best people are an invaluable resource in deciding who to add to the team. They’ll be able to see subtle things about a candidate that you missed, personality traits that you didn’tregister, and technical strengths or weaknesses that you don’t understand. They’ll be able to give you a collective gut read on whether the person would fit on the team, and they’ll have ideas for how to define the candidate’s position and responsibilities.

As a leader you don’t have to agree with every impression, but having the opinions of the people you trust always helps you shape your own. On the other hand, if the team feels excluded from the hiring process, they may feel like you don’t have confidence in their opinions. If your employees feel frozen out of the hiring process, they may feel resentful of the new hire, or even threatened by her. That type of toxic feeling can and will get in the way of the new hire’s success, no matter how qualified the person is.

The guidance in this post works best if you’ve got a team of trusted people that you can rely on for objective opinions and intelligent analysis. If you don’t have that kind of group, you may have to go back a step and work on developing a culture of cooperation and collective goal-setting — the less ego the better. A good team knows that the more team players it has, the more “wins” everyone will earn.

Good people recognize good people: High-performing employees tend to want to work with people who enhance the team; they know that groups of productive, self-driven people help each other perform at the top level. It’s in their interest to help you identify a great new hire, so take advantage. As I wrote in the post about interviewing, come up with a plan for which of your team members will cover which facet of the candidate’s background and performance. Your best engineer can evaluate technical skills, your best communicator can form an impression of the person’s people skills, and you can try to get at the deeper-seated qualities like brains and heart.”

Meet again after the interviews and compare notes: Are there any unanswered questions, uneasy impressions, or potential red flags? Or do you all agree that you’ve got a potential great hire on your hands?

Hiring as an exercise in trust building: When you invite your team into the hiring process, you’re sending them a signal that you trust them, not just for their business sense, but for their judgment in people. The new hire will always be part of a team, so have the team think of each new hire as an investment you’re all making together. If the hire turns out to be fantastic, everyone gets to reap the benefits of having found a valuable new person. If a flop, well, you all flop together. You’ll all pick up the pieces and cover the bases while you look for the next candidate.

A hire that has the group behind it will have a better likelihood of success in part because the team will collectively want its new hire to work out. Most people will go out of their way to help make the hiring choice succeed, because they helped make it. In that way, you’re also giving the new hire a better chance to find mentors and collaborators – powerful helping forces in getting new hires to their potential – and of energizing your veterans.

The value of team-based hiring is easy to see if you put yourself in the shoes of the new hire: You’ve already had meaningful conversations with many of the people you’ll be working with – supervisors, colleagues and direct reports. If those people have agreed that they want you on board and are eager to work with you, you’re half way home. With good feelings in the air before you even show up on your first day, you can feel confident that you took a job at the right place.

http://www.linkedin.com/today/post/article/20130616044605-11846967-top-10-hiring-mistakes-6-freezing-out-your-team?trk=mp-reader-card

 

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